What is paradontosis/periodontal disease?
Periodontal disease or paradontosis (commonly known as gum disease) is a chronic infection of the gums and the dental tissue, gingival, periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone. It is caused by bacteria which live on the sticky film like surfaces, the plaque, that facilitate the attachment of this biofilm. What begins as an initial inflammation of the gums, when not recognized and treated at this initial stage, can end up spreading into the deeper layers where it can cause the complete destruction of tissue and bone loss. It is important to state that advanced periodontal disease can increase the risks of cardiovascular disease, arthritis and chronic renal disease!
Who can suffer from periodontal disease?
Anyone, there are a number of factors which increase the risk and possibilities of developing this disease. Along with the chronic infection other factors that can contribute to periodontal disease are: tartar and plaque (calculus) biofilms, smoking, hormonal changes during pregnancy or puberty, teeth clenching and grinding, severe contact between the teeth of the upper and lower jaw, certain medications, improper nutrition and other system diseases such as diabetes.
What are the symptoms of periodontal disease?
The first signs of periodontal disease usually are bleeding while brushing and red, swollen, tender gums. These symptoms indicate initial inflammation of the gums (gingivitis). If this condition proceeds, the inflammation will spread into the deeper layers and cause teeth and bone loss.
Be on the lookout for signs and symptoms of periodontal disease – bleeding gums, red and swollen gums, tender gums, bad breath and loose teeth!
How can we prevent periodontal disease?
The key to preventing periodontal disease is hygiene, taking good care of your teeth and routine dental check-ups.
How is periodontal disease treated?
Treatments differ depending on the stage of periodontal disease. Nowadays there is a trend of conservative periodontal therapy, that is, non-surgical treatment. The most common way to start the treatment is with a professional teeth cleaning. The goal of this procedure is to remove and reduce the bacterial flora. With it we remove the rough layers of hardened dental plaque, which in itself is porous and consists of bacterial biofilm. The usage of an antiseptic can help the treatment, this is why antimicrobial mouth rinse is advisable. The next possibility is to introduce a direct antibiotic therapy, deep cleaning, scaling and root planing. With this procedure we remove the inflamed tissue around the tooth and make it possible for the gums to heal around the root once again.
Parts of the lost soft and bone tissue can be regained using regenerative techniques such as guided bone regeneration (GBR) and guided tissue regeneration (GTR). As regenerative materials we use artificial bone substitutes and collagen membranes which make the healing process and tissue regeneration possible. The goal of this procedure is to eliminate the inflammation, reduce the depth of the periodontal pockets, regain part of the lost tissue and keep your gums and teeth healthy with feedback and check-ups.